22:16 "I, Jesus, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star."

"I, JESUS, have sent My angel to give you this testimony FOR THE CHURCHES.

Now how about this! The Revelation of Jesus Christ is "signed" by JESUS Himself. This is the only book in the Bible to be so "signed". In effect this says, that as awful, as unbelievable, and as stupefying the things we have just read, this WILL HAPPEN, all of it!

Jesus confirms He told this to His angel who, in turn, communicated it to John and the CHURCHES (Revelation 1:1). It authenticates the completeness of this REVELATION (Revelation 1:2). "These things" essentially are all the elements written about in this book. We get the good (new heaven (Revelation 21:1), new earth (Revelation 21:1), and new Jerusalem (Revelation 21:10), for example) along with the not so good (seal judgments (Revelation 6,8:1-6), trumpet judgments (Revelation 8:7-13,9:1-21,11:15-19), and bowl judgments (Revelation 15-16), for example).

The Revelation of Jesus Christ is FOR THE CHURCHES. We haven't heard about THE CHURCHES specifically since chapters 2 and 3. To hear about THE CHURCHES now shows that the whole book of THE REVELATION pertains to ALL meetings of believers. Even commands like that given in Revelation 18:4-5 admonish THE CHURCHES to be on the alert in the present time for penetrations that the Devil will try to make into THE CHURCHES. THE CHURCHES are interpreted by most scholars to mean the larger body of believers beyond the seven specific churches.


Physically, Jesus was of the House of David according to Luke 2:1-4. He clearly identifies Himself as a Jew (Matthew 1:1-17). As Creator, He can be THE ROOT of David; by lineage, He is a blood JEW.

Interestingly, David in the Jewish genealogy comes along much longer after Abraham. In a sense, Israel by claiming David also claims most favored nation status in God's view. Consider the other Abrahamic nations, the Arabs, and their birthing out of an Egyptian mother (Genesis 16). A person can understand why today we have such violent contention between the Abrahamic nations. It also explains why this author has referred to the Revelation of Jesus Christ as primarily being an Abrahamic struggle. Non-Jews and non-Arabs really are outsiders looking in. If it wasn't for the grace of God that none of us should perish (John 3:16-21), we wouldn't even have been given the invitation of the next verse.


To the overcomers at Thyatira, Jesus says they will get the MORNING STAR." (Revelation 2:28). Check out the list of questions in the discussion of that verse.

MORNING comes after night/darkness and in a philosophical sense, this phrase says that all darkness/night/evil (Ephesians 5:3-11-14) is finished forever. The deeds committed under the cover of darkness have been exposed. The BRIGHTness of the MORNING STAR says that never again will the eternal residents of the new Jerusalem be exposed to evil. The BRIGHT MORNING STAR is the LAMP (Revelation 21:23).

If we look at the "bookends" of verse 13, this phrase indicates a sort of bookend. Even as the STAR guided wise men at Jesus' physical birth (Matthew 2:1-2-10-12), wise men will follow the BRIGHT MORNING STAR in the forever and ever. You are invited in the next verse.